burble.dn42 provides a suite of DNS services, including running one of the two DN42 DNS master nodes that exports registry information to the DNS infrastructure.

Role Names
DN42 DNS Master b.master.delegation-servers.dn42
Authoritative DNS Service b.delegation-servers.dn42
Recursive DNS Service b.recursive-servers.dn42
dns64 Service dns64.burble.dn42

Apart from the Master, all DNS services are anycast across every node to provide fast, local responses network wide. The services support DNSSEC and are available over UDP, TCP, DNS over HTTPs and DNS over TLS.

DN42 DNS Master

Name IP
b.master.delegation-servers.dn42 fd42:180:3de0:30::1

burble.dn42 runs one of the two master servers that support the DN42 DNS infrastructure.
See the wiki for more information on the role of the master service.

The master is hosted on us-dal3, providing geographic and network redundancy against the other DN42 master service, hosted in Europe.

Authoritative DNS Service

Name IP

ns1.burble.dn42 is slaved to master.delegation-servers.dn42, and provides DNSSEC signed, authoritative data for DN42 related zones.

The authoritative service may be used as the root for a local DNS resolver, with the assurance that returned DNS records are traceable via DNSSEC to the DN42 registry. The service also supports AXFR and may be used as a master to a local, slaved, root zone.

Note that ns1.burble.dn42 will not forward DNS queries.
Forwarding is provided by the recursive service, dns.burble.dn42.

Slaved DN42 zones

  • .dn42
  • .recursive-servers.dn42
  • .delegation-servers.dn42
  • .registry-sync.dn42
  • d.f.ip6.arpa.
  • 20.172.in-addr.arpa.
  • 21.172.in-addr.arpa.
  • 22.172.in-addr.arpa.
  • 23.172.in-addr.arpa.
  • 31.172.in-addr.arpa.
  • 10.in-addr.arpa.

Mastered Zones

Zone Role
burble.dn42 burble.dn42 forward zone
collector.dn42 Global Route Collector forward zone burble.dn42 IPv6 reverse zone
0/ burble.dn42 services IPv4 reverse zone
160/ burble.dn42 nodes IPv4 reverse zone DNS Master reverse zone Registry services IPv6 reverse zone
0/ Register services, IPv4 reverse zone

Recursive DNS Service

Name IP

dns.burble.dn42 is a caching, recursive DNS service that returns results for both DN42 and clearnet domains. The service issues parallel queries from five regional masters, the recursive service takes advantage of the burble.dn42 global scale to reduce latency and avoid local connectivity problems.

The recursor is DNSSEC enabled and validates all queries.

Using the recursive DNS service

Users are encouraged to consult recursive-servers.dn42 to obtain a list of recursive DNS services and configure at least two independent resolvers to obtain the best resilience.

See also the DN42 Wiki for general guidelines and best practice for setting up DNS in DN42.

$ host -t SRV _dns._udp.recursive-servers.dn42
_dns._udp.recursive-servers.dn42 has SRV record 10 10 53 a3.recursive-servers.dn42.
_dns._udp.recursive-servers.dn42 has SRV record 20 10 53 b.recursive-servers.dn42.
_dns._udp.recursive-servers.dn42 has SRV record 10 10 53 a0.recursive-servers.dn42.
_dns._udp.recursive-servers.dn42 has SRV record 20 10 53 j.recursive-servers.dn42.
_dns._udp.recursive-servers.dn42 has SRV record 20 10 53 k.recursive-servers.dn42.

Example resolv.conf using IPv6 with IPv4 fallback

# DN42 resolve.conf

search dn42

# burble.dn42 service
# b.recursive-servers.dn42 
nameserver fd42:4242:2601:ac53::53

# j.recursive-servers.dn42

DNS64 Service

Name IP
dns64.burble.dn42 fd42:4242:2601:ac53::64

The dns64 service operates in a similar way to the main recursive service but also provides dns64 translation for hostnames that only have IPv4 addresses.

The service will return IPv4 mapped to the rfc6052 well-known prefix - 64:ff9b::/96

DNS over HTTPS (DoH)

DNS over TLS

The burble.dn42 services support queries via DNS over HTTPS (on port 443) and DNS over TLS (on port 843). The HTTPS service is signed by the burble.dn42 Certificate Authority, and the CA certificate will be required by the client in order to use the service.


$ doh burble.dn42 https://[fd42:4242:2601:ac53::53]/dns-query
burble.dn42 from https://[fd42:4242:2601:ac53::53]/dns-query
TTL: 3600 seconds
AAAA: fd42:4242:2601:ac80:0000:0000:0000:0001


The DNS service is implemented as a tiered, anycast service with each node in the network providing a local cache in front of regional, slave nodes.


Edge nodes provide a caching function for the slaves.

Recursive services (dns.burble.dn42 and dns64.burble.dn42) are provided by dnsmasq configured using the ‘all-servers’ mode. DN42 queries are forwarded to all regional slaves in parallel and the first response received is then returned. This approach ensures users get the lowest latency results possible, regardless of location, and that any local connectivity issues do not impact the results.

The authoritive service as well as DNS over HTTPS and DNS over TLS services are provided by dnsdist acting as a proxy. Requests are forwarded to either the regional slaves or local recursor services as appropriate and also cached.

Clearnet queries are forwarded on the edge nodes to a combination of Google and Cloudflare services.

The edge services are monitored and anycast routes automatically injected (or removed) using GoBGP and a health checking script.


Region Host Location
Europe dns-slave.de-fra1.burble.dn42 PHP Friends, Frankfurt, Germany
Americas (East) dns-slave.ca-bhs2.burble.dn42 OVH, Beauharnois, Canada
Americas (Mid)   dns-slave.us-dal3.burble.dn42 DrServer, Dallas, USA
Americas (West)   dns-slave.us-lax1.burble.dn42 LetBox, Los Angeles, USA
Asia and Oceania dns-slave.sg-sin2.burble.dn42 OVH, Singapore

The slave nodes are implemented using PowerDNS.

The Authoritative DNS servers are configured as slaves replicating from the DN42 master for .dn42 related zones and a hidden master located on the private, internal network for burble.dn42 zones.

The recursive service is provided by the pdns-recursor configured with DNSSEC validation and additional caching.


The DN42 DNS master is a custom java program running on us-dal3.